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Network Address Translation (NAT)

Network Address Translation (NAT) is a technique that enables communication between devices with private internet protocol (IP) addresses and a public internet network. NAT translates the private IP address of the device into a public, routable one, allowing the user to access the internet with additional security. 

NAT enables multiple devices in home and office networks to share a public IP address. Each device is connected to the same router but has a unique private IP address. When communicating with the internet, they share a single public IP address assigned to the router.

Several types of NAT exist, including Static, Dynamic, and Port Address Translation (PAT). Static NAT maps a private IP address to a specific public IP address, while Dynamic NAT maps a range of private IP addresses to a range of public ones. PAT maps several private IP addresses to a single public address using various port numbers.

NAT also allows firewalls to provide additional security measures for private networks. NAT and firewalls can protect personal devices and data from malicious activity by filtering and blocking incoming traffic to the private network.

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