Encapsulation is an object-oriented programming (OOP) process that combines functions and the data they manipulate into a single entity, typically called a class.
For example, consider an object with a specific attribute hidden from external view. Through encapsulation, you can bundle it with specific functions — known as methods — to read, write, and modify the object's data. This hides the object’s internal state and grants controlled access, ensuring a more secure and efficient management of the object’s data.
By encapsulating an object’s data and behavior, web developers can build robust and scalable web applications where components such as navigation bars or footers can function independently, making the application more manageable and easier to maintain.