Encapsulation is an object-oriented programming (OOP) process that combines functions and the data they manipulate into a single entity, typically called a class. 

Available in computer languages like JavaScript, Python, C++, and Java, encapsulation shields the details of an object from unauthorized external programs. This process, known as information hiding, ensures the object's integrity while enabling its manipulation through provided methods by only allowing access to its data in a controlled manner. 

For example, consider an object with a specific attribute hidden from external view. Through encapsulation, you can bundle it with specific functions — known as methods — to read, write, and modify the object's data. This hides the object’s internal state and grants controlled access, ensuring a more secure and efficient management of the object’s data. 

By encapsulating an object’s data and behavior, web developers can build robust and scalable web applications where components such as navigation bars or footers can function independently, making the application more manageable and easier to maintain. 

Learn more about JavaScript and other OOP languages.

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